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First Edition Identifier

Reprinted and expanded from: The Antique Traders Book Collector's Price Guide. Iola, WI: Krause Publications, 2003. A cursory guide to First Edition Identification. It is compact because of space limitations, and dealers of any size should consider one of the two books in the reference book section.

Antique Trader's First Edition Guide
What is a First Edition?

A general definition for a first edition is the first time that a written work appears in a separate cover. This is an elastic definition and can create some disagreement. To take an example:

Paso Por Aqui by Eugene Manlove Rhodes, is one of the most famous and sought after Western novels. Its first appearance was in the Saturday Evening Post in February of 1927. It was published as the second novel in Once in the Saddle by Houghton Mifflin shortly thereafter. It was republished by Houghton Mifflin in 1949 in The Best Novels and Short Stories of Eugene Manlove Rhodes. The first edition of Paso Por Aqui, by the definition above, is by the University of Oklahoma, in 1973. However, if you can find Once in the Saddle in the first printing, you have a book worth, depending on condition, from $500. to $1000. The University of Oklahoma "first" is worth from $25. to $50.

So, when you say, "first edition" you are basically talking about the first appearance of a piece of writing in book form. Ideally, you want the first printing, the first state, complete as it was issued (with errata slips, dust jacket etc.) This is important to the collector in the same way an original painting is important to an art collector. It represents the first appearance in the real world of the piece of writing.

While it can be said each publisher has a unique way of marking first editions, there are some basic methods:

  1. The date on the title page matches the copyright date, and no additional printings are listed on the verso (copyright page).
  2. The verso does not list additional printings.
  3. "First Edition", "First Printing","First Impression", "First Issue" or a variation of these printed on the title page or verso.
  4. "First Published (date)" or "Published (date)" on the verso
  5. A colophon (publishers logo) printed on the title page, verso or at the end of the book.
  6. A printers code, basically a line of numbers or letters printed on the verso, showing a "1" or an A at one end or the other, with certain variations (explanation follows the chart.) If the book has an ISBN number check this first.

There are also unique methods which are exclusive to a single publisher or only two or three publishers (explanation and list follows the chart.)

Publisher 1 2 3 4 5 Reprint
Publisher
101 Productions

x




A.A.Wyn, Inc. x          
A & C Black LTD
before 1947

after 1947



A & C Black Limited



x


A.H. & A. W. Reed

x




A. Kroch & Son

x




Adam and Charles Black


x



A.C.McClurg & Co.       x    
A.S.Barnes & Co. Inc,   x        
A. L. Burt




x
A. R. Mowbray

x




ABC (All Books for Children)



x


Abelard-Schuman, Ltd.
       
Abington Press

x



x
Academic Press

x




Academy Chicago

x




Ace


x



Ace/Putnam

x




Acropolis Books

x




ACS

x




Adam Hilger

x




Adastra Press




x

Adirondack Mountain Club

x




Advocado Press

x




Ashanta Press

x




Airlife Publishing



x


Aivia Press


x



Alan Sutton



x


Alan Swallow, Publisher x     x    
Alan Wolfsy

x




Alaska Northwest

x




Alabatross Books


x



Alan R. Liss

x




Albert & Charles Boni   x        
Albert and Charles Boni x          
Albert Whitman
x





Albyn Press



x


Aletheia Publishing


x



Alfred Publishing

x




Alfred A, Knopf Inc. x x x      
Alliance Book Corporation x          
ALICEJAMES Books

x




Allan Wingate



x


Allen A. Knoll

x




Allen D. Bragdon.

x




Allen Publishing

x

x


Alpha Beat Press

x




Altamount Press


x



Altermus




x
Alyson Publications


x



Amber Lane Press

x

x


American Bar Foundation

x




American Catholic Press

x




American Library Association

x




American Publishing Company x x        
Amphoto

x




Anchorage Press

x




Ancient City Press


x



Anderson Press



x


Andrew Dakers



x


Andrews and McMeel


x



Andre Deutsch



x


Angus and Robertson



x


Antique Collector's Club


x
x


Antonson Publishing


x



Anvil Press

x




Aperture


x



Appletree Press

x




Applezaba Press

x




Aquarian Press



x


Arcadia House x          
Architectual Book Publishing

x




Architectual Press



x


Archway Press

x




Arco Publishing Co. Inc x          
Arden Press

x




Argus Books x          
Argus Book Shop

x




Ariel Press


x



Arion Press
x




Arizona Silhouettes
x





Arkham House   x        
Arlen House



x


Arlington House

x




Art and Education Publishers



x


Art Institute of Chicago

x




Artabras


x



Arthur Baker



x


Arthur H. Clark

x




Asher-Gallant

x




Ashgrove Press



x


Ashmolean Museum
x
x




Ashton Scholastic

x




Aspen Publishers

x




Associated University Presses

x




Asylum Arts

x




Atheneum Publishers     x      
Atlantic Monthly Press (after 1925); x     x      
Auckland University Press



x


Avalon Press



x


Ave Maria Press

x




Avenel




x
Avon


x



B.T.Batsford



x


B.W.Dodge & Company   x        
B.W.Huebach   x        
Baachus Press


x



Background Books



x


Bailey Bros. & Swinfin

x




Baker & Taylor   x        
Baker House

x




Bancroft-Sage

x




Banner of Truth Trust



x


Banyan Books

x




Barlenmir House


x



Barn Owl Books



x


Barnard & Westwood

x




Barre Publishing Company Inc.   x        
Barricade Books


x



Bartholomew Books

x




Basil Blackwell

x




Basil Blackwell and Mott (Basil Blackwell Limited)



x


Battery Press

x




Baylor University

x




BBC Books



x


Beach Holme


x



Beacon Press x          
Beautiful America


x



Beechhurst Press

x




Beehive Press

x




Behrman House

x




Being Publications

x




Ben Abramson x          
Bergh Publishing

x




Bergin & Garvey



x


Berkshire House


x



Bern Potter


x



Bernard Geis Associates     x      
Bernard's LTD



x


Bess Press

x




Better Homes and Gardens


x



Bhaktivedanta Book Trust


x



Bicycle Books

x




Big Sky


x



Big Table


x



Birch Brook Press


x



Black Lace



x


Black Swan


x



Black Tie Press


x



Black's Reader's Service





x
Blackie & (and) Son

before 1957

after 1957


Blackwell Scientific

x




Blakiston





x
Blanford Press



x


Bloch Publishing

x




Bloodaxe Books



x


Blue Dove Press


x



Blue Ribbon Books





x
Blue Star





x
Blue Wind Press

x




Boa Editions


x



Bobbs-Merrill Company     x   Before 1936   
The Bodley Head



x


Bolchazy-Carducci

x




Boni & Gaer Inc. x x        
Boni & Liveright   x fitfully      
The Book Guild Limited
x

x


Books West Southwest
x





The Borgo Press


x



Bottom Dog Press

x




Boxwood Press

x




Boydell & Brewer



x


Boydell Press



x


Boyds Mills






Bracken Books





x
Bradt Publications


before 1989
after 1989


The Branden Press

x




Brentano's
before 1927
after 1927      
Brewer & Warren x x        
Brewer, Warren and Putnam x x        
Brewin Books




x

Brick Row


x
x


Bridge
+ Code 1-10





British Academy

x




British Library



x


British Museum



x


British Museum Press



x


Broadside Press     x      
Brockhampton Press

x




Brompton Books

x




Bronx County Historical Society

x




Brooke House

x




Brookings Institute

x




Brooklyn Botanic Garden

x




Brown, Son & Ferguson


x



Bruccoli Clark Layman


x



Bruce Humphries, Inc. x         x  
Bruce Publishing (Milwaukee, WI)

x




Bulfinch Press


x



Bull Run of Vermont

x




Burgess & Wickizer


x



Burke Publishing



x


Burning Cities

x




Burning Deck

x




Burns & Mac Eachern

x




Burns, Oates & Washbourne


After 1937
Before 1937


Bush Press


x



Butterworth & Co.

x




Butterworth-Heinemann



x


Butterworth Scientific



x


Butterworths



x


Butterworths PTY

x




C. & J. Temple



x


C.M.Clarke Publishing Co.   x        
C. V. Mosby

x




C. W. Daniel



x


Caddo Gap

x




Cadmus Editions


x



Calder Publications


x



California Institute of Public Affairs

x




California State University Press

x




Cambridge University Press (UK & Australia)


x



Cambridge University Press (North America)



x


Camden House


x



Camelot


x



Cameron Associates x          
Camino E.E. & Book Co.

x




Canada Law Book

x




Canterbury University Press



x


Capra

x




Captain Fiddle


x



Caratzas Brothers

x




Carcanet New Press



x


Cardoza

x



Carnegie Mellon


x



Carolina Academic Press

x




Carolina Wren Press

x




Carolrhoda Books

x




Carriage House




x

Carpenter Press


x



Carstens

x




Cassell & Co.

before 1976

after 1976


Cassell LTD



x


Cassell Publishers/ PLC



x


Castalia Bookmakers

x




Castle Books
x

x


Catholic University Press of America

x




Causeway Press Limited


x



Cave Books

x




Caxton Printers   x        
Cecil Palmer


x



Cedar Bay Press


x



Celestial Arts


x



Centaur Press LTD

x




Center for Afro-American Studies


x



Center for Japanese Studies

x




Center for Western Studies


x



Centerstream


x



Century (UK)



x


Century Benham



x


Century Company (US)
Fitfully





Century Hutchinson



x


Chapman & Hall

x




Charles Knight



x


Charles L. Webster and Company   x        
Charles Scribner's Sons (before 1929) before 1929 before 1929        
Chariot


x



Charles Press
x




Charles River

x




Charles T. Branford

x




Charleton Press

x




Chaterson Limited
x





Chatham Press


x



Chatto & Windus

x




Cheever


x



Chelsea Green


x



Cherrytree Press



x


Chester R. Heck

x




Chicago Review


x



Chilton

x




China Books

x




Christian Classics



x


Christian Focus

x




Christopher-Gordon


x



Christopher Helm


x



Christopher Helm Publishing LTD

x




Christopher Johnson



x


Christopher Publishing House

x




Chronicle Books

x




Cicerone Press

x




Citadel Press   Before 1949
& after 1988
x      
City Lights

x




Clarity Press

x




Clarkson N. Potter Inc.     x      
Claude Kendall & Willoughby Sharp     x      
Claude Kendall Inc.     x      
Clearwater Publishing

x




Cleaver-Hume



x


Cliffhanger Press


x



Cloud, Inc

x




Cloudcap

x




Coffee House

x




Coldwater Press


x



Colin Smythe



x


Collier


x


Before 1989
Colonial Williamsburg Foundation

x




Columbia University
x
x




Commonwealth Press

x




Conari Press


x



Concordia

x




Conservatory of American Letters

x




Constable & Company



x


Co-Operative Union LTD



x


Copeland and Day   x        
Copper Beech

x




Copper Canyon

x




Cork University Press



x


Cornell Maritime Press

x




Cornell University Press   x  
   
Cornerstone

x




Cosmopolitan Book Corporation   x   after1927      
Cottage Press


x



Cottage Publications

x




Council for British Archeology

x




Country Life LTD



x


Countryman Press

x




Covici-Friede   x x      
Covici-McGee     x      
Coward, McCann and Geohegan   x x      
Coward-McCann Inc.   x x   Before 1936   
Creative Age Press Inc.   x        
Creative Press x          
Cressrelles



x


Crossing Press

x




Crossroad/Continuum

x




Crossway Books (UK)


x



Crown Publishers x        
Culinary Arts


x



Cupples & Leon





x
Curbstone


x



Currency Press

x




Cypress Press


x



D. S. Brewer



x


Dalkey Archive


x



Dana-Estes

x




Dartmouth Publications   x        
Darnell Corporation

x




Darton, Longman & Todd



x


David & Charles LTD

x




David & Charles PLC

x




David McKay Co. Inc. x          
David R. Godine


x



Davis-Poynter

x




DAW Books


x



Dawn Horse Press


x



Dee-Jay Publications



x


Delacorte Press     x      
Dembner Books

x




Denlinger's

x




Dennis Dobson



x


Department of Primary Industries



x


Depth Charge


x



Deseret
x





DeVorss

x




Dharma

x




Dial Press


x



Dial Press (Lincoln MacVeagh)
x
x




Diana Press

x




Diane Publishing

x




Didier

x




Dietz Press x          
Dillon Press

x




Dimi Press


x



Discovery

x




Disney

x




Dodd Mead & Co. x x        
Dodge Publishing Company     x      
Dog Ear Press


x



Dolphin

x




Donning


x



Doral

x




Dorial


x



Dorling Kidersley

x




Dorrance & Co.     x      
Dorsey Press


x



Doubleday & Co.     x      
Doubleday Doran & Company     x      
Doubleday Page & Company   x x      
Douglas West


x



Dover





x
Down Home


x



Downlander



x


Dreenan Press

x




Duell, Sloan and Pearce     x      
Duffield & Co. x x Fitfully      
Duffield & Green x x x      
Duke University x          
Dumbarton Oaks

x




Dunster House Bookshop   x x        
Dustbooks


x



E. M. Hale

x




E.P.Dutton & Co. Inc.   x x      
Eagle's View


x



Eakin Press


x



Earth Magic


x



East Woods Press


x



Eastern Press

x




Eaton & Mains   x        
Ebury Press



x


Ecco Press


x



Eclipse

x




Eden Press


x



Eden Publishing

x




Edgar Rice Burroughs


x



Edinburgh University Press



x


Edmund Ward

x




Educational Technology


x



Edward Arnold

x




Edward J. Clode Inc. x x        
Eighth Mountain


x



Eland Books





x
Eldon Press



x


Elkin Matthews

x




Ellicott Press

x




Elliot Right Way

x




Elliot Stock
x





ELM Publications



x


Emerson Books

x




Empty Bowl

x




Ensign Press

x




Enterprise Publications

x




Entwhistle Books

x



EPM Publications


x



Epworth Press


x



Equinox Cooperative Press x          
Eric Partridge LTD

x
x



Ernest Benn
x


x


Essex Institute

x




ETC Publications

x




Europa


x



Evans Brothers



x


Evanston

x




Eveleigh Nash and Grayson



x


Eyre & Spottiswoode



x


F. S. Crofts


x



F.Tennyson Neeley   x        
Faber & Faber



x


Faber & Gwyer



x


Fabian Society

x




Fairchild Books

x

x


Falcon Press



x


Falmouth Publishing House, Inc. x          
Famedram

x




Fantasy Press






Fantasy Publishing


x



Far Corner


x
x


Farrar & Rinehart Inc.     x   x  
Farrar Straus & Cudahy     x   x  
Farrar Straus and Giroux     x   x  
Farrar Straus     x   x  
Feminist Press


x



Fenland Press






Feral House


x



Fernhurst



x


Fiction Collective


x



Fiction Library





x
Fields, Osgood & Co.   x        
The Figures

x




Firebird Books



x


Fithian Press

x




Fjord Press


x



Fleming H. Revell Company   x        
Flyleaf Press

x




Focal Press



x


Follet Publishing Company     x      
Fordham University

x
x



Forest Press
x





Forum

x




Forward Movement

x




Four Seas Company x          
Four Walls Eight Windows


x



Frances Lincoln



After 1988


Frances P. Harper x x        
Franciscan Press


x



Franciscan University Press

x




Frank Cass



x


Frank Maurice   x        
Franklin Publishing

x




Franklin Watts Inc.   x x      
Frederic C. Beil


x
x


Frederick Fell Publishers       x    
Frederick Muller



x


Frederick Stokes & Co. x x       x  
Frederick Ungar

x




Free Spirit

x




Freedom Press

x




Fromm International


x



Funk & Wagnells Inc.       x    
G. Bell & Sons



x


G. Howard Watt x          
G.P.Putnam's Sons x x        
G.W.Carleton x x        
G.W.Dillingham Company   x   x    
G W Graphics

x




Gaff Press


x



Gambit     x      
Gambling Times

x




Ganley


x



Gannet


x



Garamond Press

x




Garber


x



Gaslight

x
x



Gay & Hancock

x




Genealogical Publishing

x




Geoffrey Bles



x


Geoffrey Chapman



x


George Allen & Unwin



x


George Braziller Inc.     x      
George H. Doran & Co.     x   x  
George Harrap



x


George Newnes

x
x



George Routledge & Sons

x




George Routledge & Sons, Kegan Paul, Trench,Trubner

x




George Shumway

x



George W. Stewart Publisher Inc. x          
George Weidenfeld & Nicholson

x




Geographical Association

x




Gerald Duckworth



x


Gerald Howe



x


Gibbs Smith


x



Gill and Macmillan

x




Girl Scouts of America


x



Glade House


x



GLB Publishers


x



Gleniffer Press


x



Globe Pequot


x



Globe Press


x



Gnome Press     x      
Gnomon Press


After 1991



Gold Eagle


x



Golden West

x




Golden West Historical Publications


x



Goldsmith




x
Gollehon


After 1995



Goose Lane

x




Gordon Fraser Gallery



x


Gower

x




Grafton

x

x


Granada

x

x


Grant Richards

x




Granta



x


Graphic Arts Center

x




Gray's
x




Grayson & Grayson



x


Graywolf



x


Great Ocean


x



Great Western

x




Grebner Books


x



Green Books


x



Greenberg, Publisher, Inc. x   x        
Greenfield Review


x



Greenlawn Press

x




Greenwich House




x
Greenwillow


x



Greenwood



x


Gresham Press

x




Greville Press



x


Grey Fox

x




Grey Seal



x


Grey Walls

x

x


Greystone Press


x



Grindstone Press

x




Grosset & Dunlap





x
Grossman

x




Grove Press     x      
Gryphon


x



Guiness



x


Gulf Publishing

x




Gumbs & Thomas


x



H.C. Kinsey & Company Inc. x  x        
H.W.Wilson Company x x        
Halcyon Press



x


Hale, Cushman & Flint

x




Hamish Hamilton



x


Hammond, Hammond & Co.

x




Hampshire Bookshop

x




Hancock House

x




Hanging Loose Press

x




Hannibal Books



x


Harcourt Brace etc.     x x    
Harper & Row


x



Harper Collins


x



Harper Collins PTY (Aust.)



x


Harper Collins LTD (N.Z.)



x


Harpswell


x



Harrap Ltd



x


Harrap Publishing



x


Harrison Smith & Robert Haas Inc. x x x      
Harrison Smith Inc. x x x      
Harry Cuff

x




Harvard Business School
x




Harvard University Press x x        
Harvester Press



x


Harvey Miller

x




Hastings House Publishers, Inc. x   Letterpress        
Hawthorn


x



Haynes

x
x



Heat Press


x



Heath Cranton

x




Heimburger House


x



Heinemann New Zealand



x


Hellman, Williams

x




Hendrick-Long

x




Henkle-Yewdale

x




Henry Altemus   x        
Henry Holt & Co. Inc. x   x x    
Henry E. Huntington Library

x




Henry Schumann Inc. x        
Henry T. Coates & Co.       x    
Her Majesty's Stationary Office



x


Herald Press (See unique)

x




Herbert Jenkins

before 1948
after 1948



Herbert Press



x


Herbert S. Stone & Co.   x        
Hermes Publications     x      
Hermitage

x




Hermitage House     x      
High-Lonesome Books


x



Hill & Wang x   x      
Hill of Content



x


Hillman-Curl, Inc. x          
Historic New Orleans


x



H. Karnac LTD



x


Hobby Horse

x




Hodder & Stroughton



x


Hoffman Press

x




Hogarth Press
x
x




Holiday House, Inc.
1947-1988  After 1988 

   
Hollis and Carter



x


Holmes and Meier

x




Holt Rinehart & Winston Inc. x   x x    
Homestead

Guidebooks
x



Hoover Institution

x




Hope Publishing House

x




Horace Liveright Inc. x   x      
Horizon Press x          
Horn Book

x




Horwitz Grahame

x




Houghton Mifflin Australia



x


Houghton Mifflin Company       x    
House of Anansi

x




Howard University

x




Howe Brothers

x




Howell-North

x




Howell Press


x



Howell Soskin Publishers x          
Hudson Hills


x



Hugh Evelyn



x


Hull University

x




Humanics Publishing


x



Humanities Press

x




Humanities Press International



x


Huntington Library

x




Hurst





x
Hurst & Blackett



x


Hutchinson



x


Hyperion

x




I. E. Clark

x




Ian Henry

x




Icarus Press

x




IDE House


x



Ignatius Press

x




Illuminated Way

x




Images Australia PTY

x




Impact

x




Indiana Historical Society

x




Indiana University Press
before 1974 after 1974         
Industrial Press


x



Info Devil


x



Inform

x




Inner Traditions
x




Institute of Education



x


Institute of Jesuit Sources

Before 1993
After 1993



Institute of Psychological Research

x




Institute Chemical Engineers (UK)

x




Institute of Electrical Engineers (UK)

x




Intellect



x


Intermedia Press

x




International Publishers


x



International Universities Press

x




IOP Publishing

x




Iowa State University Press x          
IPD Enterprises



x


Irish Academic Press

x




Islamic Foundation

x




Island Press (Australia)

x




Island Press Cooperative

x




IT Publications
x





Italica Press



x


Ives Washburn Inc. x x        
Ovor Nicholson & Watson


x



J.A.Allen & Co.
x




J.B.Lippencott Company     x x    
J. Garnet Miller



x


J. M. Dent & Sons

Before 1936

After 1936


J. Michael Pearson

x




J. Walter Black





x
J. Whittaker & Sons

x




Jacaranda Press

x




Jacaranda Wiley



x


James & James



x


James Duffy



x


James M. Heineman

x




James Nisbet

x
x



James Pott
x





James R. Osgood and Company   x        
Jane's Information Group


x



Janus Press
x





Jargon

x




Jarolds

After 1948

Before 1948


Jefferson House






Jewish Publication Society
x

x



John C.Winston Co. x          
John Day

After 1937

Before 1937


John F. Blair


x



John Calder


x



John Hamilton

x




John Knox Press

x




John Lane Company   x        
John Lane The Bodley Head LTD

Before 1928

After 1928


John Long

x




John Muir


x



John Murray
Before 1982
After 1982




John W. Luce & Company x x        
John Westhouse



x


John Wiley & Sons

x




Johns Hopkins University Press x   x        
Jonathon Cape



x


Jonathon Cape and Robert Ballou

x

Fitfully


Jonathon Cape & Harrison Smith       x    
Jonathon David


x



Jordan (s)

x




Joseph J. Binns


x



Journeyman Press



x


Judson Press

x




Julian Messner x        
Juniper Press

x




Junius-Vaughn


x



Kalimat Press


x



Kalmbach

x




Kanchenjunga


x



Kayak

x




KC Publications

x




Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., LTD
x




Kelsey St.

x




Kensington


x



Kent State University Press


x



Kevin Weldon & Associates PTY



x


Kindred

x




King's Crown Press   x        
Kitchen Sink


x



Kivaki Press


x



Know Inc.


x



Kodansha International


x



L.C.Page & Co.     x x    
Lacis

x




Ladan


x



Lahontian Images


x



Lane Publishing


x



Lansdowne Press



x


Lantern Press, Inc. x        
Lapis Press


x



Larin


x



Latimer House



x


Lawrence and Wishart

x




Lawrence Hill


x



Lawrence J. Gomme   x        
Lea

x




Lea & Febiger

x




Lee and Shepard   x   x    
Legacy

x




Leicester University Press



x


Lennard Associates

x




Leo Cooper



x


Lerner Publications
x
x



Levite of Apache


x



Lewis Copeland Company       x    
Leyland

x
x



Liberty Bell Press


x



Liberty Fund

x




Libra Press


x



Library of America

Compilations


x
Lightning Tree

x
Sporatic



Liguori


After 1994



Lillian Barber Press

x




Limelight


x


x
Lindsay Drummond



x


Literary Guild





x
Little Blue Books




x
Little Brown and Company   x x      
Little Hills Press PTY LTD

x




Liveright Publishing Corp. x x        
Liverpool University Press

x




Livingston

x




Llewellyn


x



Log House

x




Lone Eagle



x


Longman, Inc.



x


Longman Cheshire PTY



x


Longmans Green & Co.   x x      
Longstreet House

x




Lord John Press


x



Loring & Mussey, Inc. x   x      
Lothrop Publishing Company x x        
Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Co. Inc. x     x    
Louise Corteau, Editrice

x




Louisiana State University Press x x        
Lovatt Dickson



x


Luman Christi



x


Lund Humphries



x


Lutterworth



x


Lynne Rienner

x




M.Barrows & Company     x      
M. S. Mill

x




Macaulay

x




MacDonald



x


MacFarland, Walter & Ross

x




MacLay & Associates


x



Macmillan Inc.   x x      
Macrae-Smith Company     x      
Macy-Masius   x   x    
Mansell



x


Marion Boyars Publishers, Inc.

x




Marion Boyars Publishers. LTD



x


Mark Zieseng


x



Martin Brian & O'Keefe LTD



x


Martin Secker & Warburg


After 1976


Marshall Jones Company x          
Martin Hopkinson
x
x

x


Maryland State Archives
x




Masquerade Books

x



Matson





Maurice Fridberg

x




Maupin House


x



Maxwell Droke

x




May Davenport


x



McClelland and Stewart

x




McClure Phillips & Co.   x   x    
McDowell Obolensky x          
McGraw Hill Book Company x   x      
McGraw Hill Ryerson

x




McNally & Loftin, Publishers x          
McPhee Gribble PTY



x


McPherson


x



Medici Society

Child & Art

x


Melbourne University Press



x


Memphis State University

x




Mercat Press



x


Mercer University Press

x




Mercier Press

x




Meredith Books


x



Meridian Books

x




Meridonal

x




Meriwether


x



Merlin Books LTD



x


Merlin Press, Inc.   x        
Merriam-Webster


x



Methuen



x


Metropolitan Museum of Art

x




Michael Haag


x



Michael Joseph



x


Michael Kesend


x



Michell Kennerly   x        
Michigan State University Press

x




Middle Atlantic Press


x



Milestone



x


Mills & Boon



x


Minnesota Historical Society (after 1940) x          
Minton Balch & Co,   x        
Missouri Archaelogical Press

x




MIT Press

x




MMB Music

x




Mockingbird Books


x



Modern Language Association

x




Modern Library




x
Modern Age Books   x        
Moffat Yard and Company       x    
Mojave

x




Monad Press


x



Montana Historical Society

x




Moody Press

After 1960




Moon Publications


x



Morehouse

x




Morehouse-Barlow
x




Morehouse-Graham
x




Morgan & Lester

x




Morgan & Morgan
x




Morton


x



Mosaic

x




Mosby Yearbook

x




Motorbooks



x


Mountain Press

x




Mountaineers Books


x



Moutin de Gruyter

x




Multimedia Publishing


x



Murray & McGee

x




Museum of Modern Art

x




Museum of New Mexico
Before 1981
After 1981




Museum Press
x





Mycroft & Moran   x        
Mysterious Press


x



Mystery House

x




Mystic Seaport Museum


x



Nags Head Art


x



Naiad Press


x



National Foundation Press

x




National Library of Australia

x




National Library of Scotland



x


National Museums of Scotland

x




National Museum of Women in the Arts

x




National Woodlands


x



Nautical and Aviation

x




Naylor

x




Neale Publishing Company   x        
Nelson, Foster & Scott


x



Nelson-Hall

x




Netherlandic Press

x




Neville-Spearman



x


New American Library       x    
New Amsterdam


x



New Classics





x
New Dawn


x



New Directions

After 1976
After 1970



New England Cartographics


x



New England Press


After 1986



New English Library



x


New Harbinger

x




New Native Press


x



New Poets Series

x




New Republic

x




New South

x




New South Wales University Press

x




New Star


x



New View

x




New Woman's Press



x


New York Culture Review


x



New York Graphic Society


x



New York Zoetrope


x



Nine Muses

x




Noel Douglas



x


Nonesuch

x




Noonday


x



North Atlantic

x




North Point Press

Before 1988




North Star

x




Northland


After 1972



Northwestern University Press   x        
Northwoods Press

x




Noyes, Platt & Company   x        
Oak Knoll

x




Oakhill Press


x



Oakwood Press

x




Oasis Books



x


Oberlin College Press


x



O'Brien



x


Ocean View


x



Odyssey Press


x



O'Hara

x




Ohio State University Press x          
Ohio University Press x x        
O'Laughlin


x



Old Vicarage



x


Oliver & Boyd


x



Oliver Durrell

x




OMF International



x


Omnibus Books



x


On Stream

x




Open Court

x




Open Hand


x



Open University Press



x


Orbis

x




Oregon Historical Press

x




Oregon State University Press

x




Oriel Press

x




O'Reilly and Associates

x




Orion



x


Otago

x




Outrider Press

x




Outrigger

x




Overlook Press


x



Oxford University Press x   x      
Oxmoor House

x
Art Books



Oyez

x




P & R

x




Pacific Books

x




Padre Productions

Before 1994
After 1994



Pan



Anthologies

x
Pan Macmillan PTY



x


Panjandrum


x



Pantheon Books, Inc. x          
Para Publishing

x




Paraclete Press

x




Paragon House


x



Parnassus


x



Pascal Covici   x Fitfully      
Passport Press

x




Paternoster

x




Pathfinder


x



Pathway Press

x




Patrice Press

x




Patrick Stephens Ltd.



x


Paul A. Struck


x



Paul Elek

x




Paul S. Eriksson

x




Payson & Clarke Ltd. x x        
Pegasus Press



x


Pegasus Publishing


x



Pelican Publishing

x




Pelligrini and Cudahy x          
Pen Rose


x



Penguin (Australia)



x


Penmaen Press


x



Penn Publishing Company x
x




Pennsyvania State University Press

x




Pennyworth Press

x




Penzler Books


x



Pequot Press


x



Peregrine Smith

x




Pergamon Press Inc.     x      
Perivale Press



x


Permanent Press

1988-1993
After 1993



Perry & North

x




Persea Books


x



Peter Davies



x


Peter Halban

x




Peter Marcan


x



Peter Owen



x


Peter Smith
x





Phaidon Press

x




Philosophical Library

x




Philosophical Research


x



Phoenix Book Shop

x




Philip Allan & Co.
x




Philip C. Duschnes   x        
Philosophical Library

x




Pickering & Inglis LTD

x




Picton Press

x




Pictorial Histories

x




Pineapple Press


After 1985



Playwrights Canada


x



Pleiades Books



x


Plenum

x




Plough Publishing House

x




Plympton Press


x



Pocahontas Press


x



Poet's Press

x




Poetry Bookshop

x




Polygonal

x




Poolbeg Press

x




Porpoise Press



x


Post-Apollo

x




Potomac Books

x




Prager



x


Prentice-Hall

x




Prentice-Hall Australia

x




Prentice-Hall UK



x


Preservation Press

x




Press Porcepic

x




Pressworks Publishing


x



Price Milburn



x


Price/Stern/Sloan


x



Primavera Press

x




Princeton University Press x x
       
Prism Press

x




Proscenium


x



Pruett


x



Puckerbush

x




Pudding House

x




Pulp Press

x




Pulse-Finger Press

x




Purdue University Press

x




Purchase Press

x




Purple Finch Press


x



Purple Mountain Press


x



Pushcart Press


x



Pygmy Forest Press

x




Pyne Press


x



Quadrangle

x




Quail Ridge Press


x



Quail Street

x




Quest (Theosophical Society)


x



Quill & Brush


x



Quill Driver


x



Quixote

x




Quota Press



x


R.Cobden-Sanderson



x


R & E

x




R.H.Russell   x   x    
R.R.Bowker x x        
Rabeth Publishing

before 1995
after 1995



Rae D. Henkle Co. Inc. x          
Ragweed Press

x




Rainbow Books

x




Ram


x



Ramparts Press


x



Rand McNally & Company x     x    
Random House Inc.     x      
Ranger International


x



Ravian Press


x



Rawson, Wade


x



Raymond Flatteau


x



Reader's Digest

Anthologies


x
Real Comet Press


x



Red Crane


x



Redbird Press


x



Reed Books PTY

x




Reed Publishing LTD



x


Reference Publications

x




Regent House


x



Regnery Gateway

x




Regular Baptist Press

x




Reilly & Britton Co. x x        
Reilly & Lee Co. Inc. x After 1937       
Reinhardt Books



x


Release Press


x



Renaissance House

x




Resources for the Future

x




Reynal and Hitchcock Inc. x   x      
Rex Collings



x


Riba

x




Riccardi Press



x


Richard G. Badger   x        
Rice University Press


x



Rich & Cowan


x



Richard Marek

x




Richard R. Smith x x        
Richard W. Baron Publishing Company Inc.       x    
Richards Press

x




Rider


x



Rigby LTD



x


Rinehart




x

Rio Grande Press





x
Rising Tide Press


x



Rivercross


x



Riverrun



x


Rizzoli International


x



Robert Hale

x




Robert M. McBride & Company     x x    
Robert R. Knapp

x




Robert Speller


x



Robert Welch

x




Roberts Brothers   x        
Rockbridge


x



Rockport Press


x



Rocky Mountain Books

x




Roland Harvey



x


Rosendale Press

x




Rough Guides LTD


x



Roundwood Press


x



Routledge



x


Routledge, Chapman, and Hall



x


Roulege & Kegan Paul



x


Roy Publishers Inc. x          
Royal College of General Practitioners



x


Royal House


x



Royal Society

x




Royal Society of Chemistry

x




Running Press

x




Rupert Hart-Davis
x


x


Russell-Sage

x




Rutgers University Press x  x        
S. B. Publications



x


S. Evelyn Thomas

x




Saalfield





x
Safari Press


x



Sagamore Press x          
Sage Books x x        
Sage Publications LTD



x


Saint Andrews Press



x


Saint Bede's


x



St. Botolph

x




St. Herman of Alaska Brotherhood


x



St. James Press

x




St. Martin's Press (Australia)



x


St. Martin's Press, Inc.

x




St. Paul's House


x



Salem House

x




Saltire House


x
x


Samuel Curl

x




Samuel Weiser



x


San Diego State University Press

x




Sand Dollar

x




Sandhill Crane Press

x




Scarlet Press

x




Scarthin Books



x


Schoken

x




SCM Press LTD



x


Scottish Academic Press

x




Sea Horse

x




Search Press



x


Sears Publishing Company Inc. x  x        
Seaver


x



Second Coming

x




Self-Counsel Press


x



Selwyn & Blount



x


Sepher-Hermon Press

x




Seren Books

x




Serpent's Tail



x


Servant Publications

x




Seven Star


x



Seymour Lawrence


x



Shambhala


x



Sheed & Ward Inc.   x        
Sheffield Academic Press


x



Sheldon Press



x


Shengold

x




Shepheard-Walwyn



x


Sheridan House Inc. x x        
Sherman French & Company   x        
Shire

x




Shoal Creek

x




Sidgwick & Jackson (Australia)



x


Sidgwick & Jackson LTD

x




Sigma Books



x


Silver Burdett Company   x        
Silver Link



x


Simon & Schuster x   x      
Sinclair-Stevenson



x


Sixteenth Century Journal

x




Skeffington & Son

x




Skelton Robinson

x




Skoob



x


Sleepy Hollow Restorations


x



Small Maynard and Company   x        
The Smith


x



Smith Gryphon



x


Smith Settle

x




Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge

x




Sohnen-Moe


x



Soho Book Company

x




Soho Press


x



Som Publishing

x




Something Else Press   x x        
Sono Nis Press

x




SOS Publications

x




Southbound Press

x




Southern Illinois University Press x   x        
Southern Methodist University Press

x




Southwest Press   x        
Sphere Books

x        
Sphinx


x



Spindlewood



x


Spinifex Press



x


Spoon River


x



Spring Publications


x



SR Books



x


Stackpole Books x   x      
Stackpole Sons

x




Stanford University Press x          
Stanton and Lee   x        
Stanwix House

x




State Historical Society of Wisconsin x          
State University Of New York Press

x




Station Hill


x



Stream Press

x




Stein & Day Publishers x x        
Stemmer House


x



Stephen Daye Press x x        
Stephen Greene

x

After 1984


Stephen-Paul


x



Sterling

x




Steve Davis


x



Still Waters Press


x



Stone and Kimball   x        
Stone Wall Press


x



Stonehill


x



Stobart & Sons

x




Stobart Davies Ltd.

x




Storm

x




Stormline Press

x




Strawberry Hill

x




Street & Massey



x


Street and Smith




x
Strether and Swann


x



Studio Limited

x




Studio Publications

x




Sulzberger & Graham

x




Summit


x



Sun & Moon Press


x



Sun Dial




x
Sunflower



x


Sun Publishing


After 1981



Sunnyside


x



Sunset Publishing


x



Superior Publishing Company x          
Suttonhouse
x
x
After 1937



Swallow Press


x



Swallow Press (Ohio University)

x




Syracuse University Press x          
T & A D Poyser



x


T & T Clark Limited

x




T. N. Foulis



x


T. S. Denison

x




T. Werner Laurie



x


Tabb House

x




Tafford


x



Talbot Press Ltd.
x





Talisman House

x




Talon Books

x
After 1994



Tamaroack Books

x




Tamarack Press


x



Tandem Press (New Zealand)



x


Tandem Press (U. S.)

x




Taplinger Publishing Co. Inc.     x      
Tatsch

x




Taunton Press


x



Temple University Press

x




Texas A & M University Press


x



Texas Christian University Press

x




Texas Monthly Press


x



Texas Tech University Press


x



Texas Western Press

x




Thames and Hudson Inc.



x


Thames and Hudson Ltd.

x




Thames and Hudson Pty.

x




Theater Arts


x



Theosophical Publishing House (Wheaton)


x



Theosophical University Press


x



Thistledown Press

x




Thomas Jefferson University

x




Thomas Nelson & Sons



x


Thomas Seltzer   x        
Thomas Telford



x


Thomas Y. Crowell x   After1926
     
Thorndike Press





x
Thornton Butterworth



x


Thorson's



x


Thunder's Mouth

before 1993
after 1993



Tia Chucha

x




Ticknor & Fields x x        
Ticknor and Company x x        
Tilbury House


x



Times Books


x



Tolley Publishing



x


TOR


x



Tory Corner Editions


x



Tower





x
Town House and Country House



x


Trail's End Publishing Inc.     x      
Transaction Books

x




Transatlantic Arts


x



Transportation Trails



x


Treehaus


x



Trend House

x




Triangle





x
Trident Press x x        
Trigon Press


x


Triumph


x



Troubador


x



Trout Creek

x




TSG

x




Tundra Books of Montreal

x




Tundra Books of Northern New York

x




Turner Co.

x




Turner Publishing

x




Turnstone



x


Turtle Island

x




Turton & Armstrong PTY

x




Twayne Publishers Inc. x   x        
Twentieth Century Fund

x




Twenty-Third Publications

x




Two Bytes


x



UCL Press



x


Underwood-Miller


x



Unicorn Press



x


Universe Books

x




University Books
x




University Classics
x




University College of Cape Breton Press


x


University of Alabama Press x          
University of Alaska Press


x



University of Arizona Press x        
University of Arkansas Press

x




University of British Columbia Press

x




University of Calgary Press

x




University of California Press x x        
University of Chicago Press x   x        
University of Colorado Press x          
University of Georgia Press

x




University of Hull Press

x




University of Illinois Press x          
University of Iowa Press

Before 1985
After 1985



University of Kansas Museum of Natural History

x




University of Kentucky Press x          
University of Massachusetts Press

x




University of Miami Press x          
University of Michigan Press x          
University of Minnesota Press x          
University of Missouri Press

x




University of Montana Linguistics Laboratory



x


University of Nebraska Press x          
University of New Mexico Press


x



University of New South Wales

x




University of North Carolina Press x x        
University of Oklahoma Press     x      
University Of Otago Press



x


University of Pennsylvania Press x x        
University of Pittsburgh Press x          
University of Queensland Press

x




University of Rochester Press

x




University of South Carolina Press     x      
University of Tennessee Press x   x      
University of Texas Press x          
University of Utah Press

x




University of Wales Press

x




University of Washington Press x          
University of Western Australia Press



x


University of Wisconsin Press
Before 1970

After 1970



University Press of America

x




University Press of Colorado

x




University Press of Florida

x




University Press of  Hawaii

x




University Press of Kansas

x




University Press of  Mississippi

x




University Press of  New England

x




University Press of Virginia   x        
University Presses of Florida

x




University Society

x




Unwin, Hyman, Inc.

x




Unwin, Hyman Limited



x


Urban Institute


x



Ure Smith


x
x


Urizen Books

x




U. S. Games Systems


x



Van Nostrand Reinhold

x




Van Petten

x




Vandamere

x




Vanguard Press x          
Vedanta

x




Veloce



x


Vestal Press

x




Victor Gollancz

x




Victoria University Press



x


Viet Nam Generation

x




Viking Penguin

x




Viking UK


x



Viking Press

x

x


Villard


x



Virago Press



x


Virgin



x


Vision Books


x



Vixen

x




W.A.Wilde Company x        
W. D. Hoard

x




W. H. Freeman

x




W. Heffer & Sons

x




W. Heinemann



x


W. H. & O.


x



Wm. B. Eerdmans

x




W & R Chambers


x



W. W. Norton


Before 1976



Wadsworth Publishing

x




Wake-Brook House


x



Walker and Co.



x


Walter McVitty



x


Walter Neale   x        
Ward Lock



x


Warren H. Green

x




Wartburg Press

x




Washington Researchers


x



Washington State University Press


x



Water Row Press


x



Waterfront


x



Watermark Press

x




Watson-Guptill

x
x



Way and Williams   x        
Wayne State University Press

x




Weatherhill


x



Webb Publishing


x



Webb Research

x




Weidenfeld & Nicholson


x


Westcott Cove

x




Wesleyan University Press     x      
West Coast Poetry Review

x




Western Producer Prarie Books

x




Western Reserve University x          
Westernlore
x
x




Westland

x




Westminster Press

After 1977




Westminster/John Knox


x



Westview

x




Weybright and Talley Inc. x          
Wheat Forders



x


White Cockade

x




White Pine

x




Whitehorse Press

x




Whitney Library of Design



x


Whitson


x



Whittlesey House x          
Widescope International PTY



x


Wilde & Johnson




x

Wilderness Press

x




Wilfred Funk
x




Willet, Clarke and Company x x        
William Blackwood & Sons

x




William Carey Library

x




William Collins PTY



x


William Collins & Son

x




William Edward Rudge   x        
William-Fredrick Press
x





William Godwin x          
William Heinemann

Before 1920

After 1920


William Kimber



x


William L. Bauhan

x




William Morrow & Co. Inc.   After 1976
Before 1976       
William Penn Publishing Company x          
William R. Scott



x


William Sloane Associates Inc.     x      
Williams & Northgate



x


Williams & Wilkins

x




Wilfred Funk


x



Winchester Press

x




Windrush Press



x


Windswept House

x




Windward House

x




Windward Publishing

x




Wingbow Press

Before 1981
After 1981



Winslow



x


Winston-Derek

x




Wisconsin House


x



Wishart

After 1935

Before 1935


Witherby


x



Wolfhound Press

x




Woman's Press


x



Wood Lake

x




Woodbridge Press

x




World Bank


x



World Leisure

x




World Publishing Company     x      
World Resources

x




World Scientific

x




Yachting

x




Yale Center for British Art

 x  
   
Yale University Press   x     x    
Yankee


x



Ye Galleon





x
Yellow Hook


x



Zephyr Press


x



Zephyrus Press


x



Zero Press     x      
Ziff-Davis Limited



x


Ziff-Davis Publishing Company x   x        
Ziggurat Press

x




Zoland Books


x



Zondervan

x





 

American & British Publishers Using Unique or Semi-unique Methods

D.Appleton & Co. Appleton-Century Crofts*- The print run is at the end of the text, (1) being a First Edition.

Arcadia House - No date on Title page "1" on the verso.

Arkham House- Carried a colophon page with edition noted at the end of the text.

Black Sparrow - Edition and Printing noted on colophon page in the rear and the title page printed in color.

Bruce Publishing (St. Paul, MN) - The printing is indicated in the lower left corner of the last page.

Carrick & Evans Inc.- First Editions have an "A" on the verso.

Cokesbury Press- First Editions have a "C" at the foot of the verso.

Coward-McCann - To 1936 put a colophon on verso, a colophon with a torch signified a first edition

Thomas Y. Crowell Company Inc.- The First Edition has a "1" at the foot of the verso.

Jonathon David - A number "1" above the date on the verso indicates a first edition.

Stanley Gibbons- The Edition number is carried on the title page.

Golden Cockerell- A limited edition publisher, exceptions to exclusive first editions in their line (reprints) are:  Adam & Eve & Pinch Me (1921), Rummy (1932), and Tapster's Tapestry (1938) by A. E. Coppard; Tersichore & Other Poems (1921) bt H.T.Wade-Gery; The Puppet Show (1922) by Matin Armstrong; Consequences (1932) and Anthology; The Hansom Cab and the Pigeons (1935) by L. A. G. Strong; The Epicure's Anthology (1936) edited by Nancy Quennell; The Tale of the Golden Cockerell (1936) by A. S. Pushkin; Chanticleer (1936) a Bibliography; Ana the Runner (1937) by Patrick Miller; Here's Flowers (1937) An Anthology Edited by Joan Ritter; Mr. Chambers and Persephone (1937), and The Lady from Yesterday (1939) by Christopher Whitfield; Goat Green (1937) by T. F. Pwys; The White Llama (1938) being the La Venganza del Condor of V. G. Calderon; Brief Candles (1938) by Lawrence Binyon; and The Wisdom of the Cymry (1939) by Winifred Faraday.

Grune & Stratton- "A" on the last page of the index indicates a first printing.

Harcourt Brace etc.*- No date on Title page "1" on the verso. Also "First Edition" over a line of letters beginning with B.

Harper etc.- Uses all methods except 5. From 1912 to 1971 used a number code for Month and Year, month starting with A-January through M (excepting J) December followed by the year alphabetically beginning with M-1912, and returning to A in 1926, and 1951. Code corresponding to copyright date is a First. Thusly:

          A-Jan          G-Jul 
B-Feb H-Aug
C-Mar I-Sep
D-Apr K-Oct
E-May L-Nov
F-Jun M-Dec

M-1912 A-1926 P-1940
N-1913 B-1927 Q-1941
O-1914 C-1928 R-1942
P-1915 D-1929 S-1943
Q-1916 E-1930 T-1944
R-1917 F-1931 U-1945
S-1918 G-1932 V-1946
T-1919 H-1933 W-1947
U-1920 I-1934 X-1948
V-1921 K-1935 Y-1949
W-1922 L-1936
X-1923 M-1937
Y-1924 N-1938
Z-1925 0-1939

Herald Press- Before 1993 carried the publication date below the publisher's imprint on the title page on
first editions only.

IGI Publications- A number "1" next to the last page number signifies a first edition.

Wayne L. McNaughton- Three numbers seperated by .  as 1.1.1. The first is the stock number, second, edition, third, print run

Mycroft & Moran- Carried a colophon page with edition noted at the end of the text.

Permanent Press- Carried a colophon page with edition noted at the end of the text.

Random House- "First Edition" stated over a number line beginning at 2 (changed to standard line beginning at 1 during 2004).

Charles Scribner's Sons*- Between 1929 and 1973 an "A" on the verso designated a First. A colophon accompanying the A was fitfully used at the foot of the verso.

Martin Secker- Bibliographic history on the verso.

Martin Secker & Warburg- Bibliographic history on the verso.

Sheed & Ward LTD-  Bibliographic history on the verso.

Frederick Warne & Co. Inc.- A number 1 at the foot of the verso is a First.

Franklin Watts Inc.*- A number 1 at the foot of the verso is a First.

Printers' Codes

A printer's code may be a simple line of numbers or letters on the verso, or may be more complicated giving such facts as the year, or month of publication.

Examples of a first printing:

          1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

A B C D

a b c d e f g

Subsequent printings remove the runs completed, for example:

          3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 
is a third printing.

Later printings may carry a single number or a series, the lowest being the current print run for example:

Both "25 26 27" and "25" indicate the twenty-fifth printing.

A more complicated code might read

          1 2 3 4 5 6   91 92 93 94 95 
which would be a first printing in the year 1991, you would then check the copyright date to verify a first edition (ie: the copyright date would have to be 1991).

The print code indicates a print run. In and of itself it does not always guarentee a first edition, only a first printing which may be a second, or special edition of the work. However, on most books originally published with ISBN numbers, the print code verification can be taken as indicating a first edition, if no conflicting evidence is present.

Cautions

There are many factors in looking for first editions. Publishers are a bit lax in designating them and often use the same plates without variation or with minor variations when they reprint, and children's books often do not follow the conventions. For more expensive and collectible books, as well as the books of known and collectible authors, the variations are known and noted in bibliographies, the standard in American books being the Bibliography of American Literature (abbreviated BAL). There are, however, a few obvious factors.

Book Club Editions

There are certain "give-aways" to book club Editions. First, check the dust jacket, if one is present. Is it priced? If not, be suspicious. Book of the Month Club stamps the back cover on the lower right with some geometric symbol, either printed on the cloth or indented (debossed). Some BOMC editions carry a code (JK5H, for example) near the bottom of the last few pages. Does it feel light? Book clubs use thinner paper. Does it have a headband (small pieces of cloth inside the top, bottom or along the spine)? If not, be suspicious.

Reprint Publishers

Some publishers specialize in reprinting . So, while a book may look like a first edition given any standard of marking, it is a reprint. Grosset and Dunlap, J.Walter Black, A.L.Burt are all reprint publishers and rarely produced original works.

Copyright Richard K. Russell- All Rights Reserved